Permanent Exposition on Geomatics

 

Minute of the École d'Arpentage

Mission of the Department of Geomatics Sciences

Directors since 1907

Honoris Causa Doctorates

First Graduate Students

Professor Staffs in 1908-1909

Surveying Curriculum 1909-1910

Professor Staffs in 1997

Current Geomatics Curriculums: sciences géomatiques, génie géomatique

Departement's Statistics

Photography of the years 1950

International Association related to Geomatics

Stamps and Currencies related to Geomatics

Display of the charts of the St. Lawrence River

 


    

   
    
      
    
   

 Extract of the inventory of the scientific collections at Laval University

 

 

Display descriptions

 

MAGNETIC COMPASS

A magnetic compass allowed the determination of the azimuth with respect to the magnetic north.

     Boussolesmini.JPG (13602 octets)

METRIC SURVEYING CHAIN

This XIXth century Swiss (metric) surveying chain is 2 decametres long (20 m). Gunter’s chain, used in Canada, was 66 feet long.

On loan from Dr. Jean-Jacques Chevallier.

 

     Chainemini.JPG (8749 octets)

STEEL SURVEYING TAPE

A steel surveying tape was used to measure (horizontal) distance before the introduction of the EDM and total station.

     Ruban1mini.JPG (12700 octets)    

 

 

 

PLANE TABLE (K&E)

A plane table consisted of a drawing board mounted on a tripod and an alidade to measure horizontal angles. This allowed us to draw, in the field, the surveying plan directly on a sheet of drawing paper fastened to the board.

     

ENGINEER’S TRANSIT

A transit allowed the measurement of horizontal and vertical angles for land surveying. This transit was built by E.R. Watts & Son of London in the 1920s. 

     Tachéomètremini.JPG (14840 octets)

TACHEOMETER T1A

The first tacheometer T1 was invented by the Swiss man H. Wild in 1931. This T1A model was introduced on the market in 1956. 

 
          

TACHEOMETER, BELLIENI

This tacheometer is integrated with a compass (for measurement of the magnetic azimuth). This instrument was built in Paris in 1900.

          

AUTO-CORRECTOR TACHEOMETER (STADIMETER) SANGUET

Auto-corrector tachometer (or stadimeter) allows to directly measure distances reduced to the horizontal. This instrument was built in Paris by the Sanguet manufacturer in the late nineteenth century or early twentieth century. 

  
          

COMPASS AND SURVEYOR’S TELESCOPE

This instrument incorporates a surveyor's telescope (for measuring angles) and a compass indicating the direction of magnetic north. The compass is inserted into a brass cylinder so as not to disturb the reading thereof.  

 
           

ENGINEER’S LEVEL

An engineer’s level allowed the measurement of height differences using levelling staffs. This engineer’s level was built by T. Cook & Sons of London in the 1920s.

     Niveau2mini.JPG (10491 octets)

SURVEYING LEVEL, W. & L.E. GURLEY

This ancient surveying level was built by the company W. & L. E. Gurley of Troy (N.Y.) established in 1852. This instrument dates from the late nineteenth century.

        

HELIOTROPE

A heliotrope allowed to redirect (to flash) sunlight to a distant station. It was used as a signal for long distance (conventional) geodetic surveys.  

     Héliotropemini.JPG (10758 octets)

THEODOLITE, E. & G.W. BLUNT

This ancient theodolite was built by the manufacturer E. & G. W. Blunt (New York City). This company manufactured such instruments from 1811 to 1866.

 
           

THEODOLITE WILD T2 AND MINI-THEODOLITE

These theodolites were built by the Wild company. The T2 was mainly used to establish 2nd order conventional geodetic networks until the 1980s. The mini-theodolite was a reconnaissance surveying tool. 

     T2mini.JPG (11856 octets)     ThéoPochemini.JPG (9349 octets)

THEODOLITE WILD T3

This theodolite was built by the Wild company. The T3 was mainly used to establish 1st order conventional geodetic networks until the 1980s.

     T3amini.JPG (8644 octets)

THEODOLITE WILD T4

This theodolite was built by the Wild company. The T4 was mainly used, up until the 1970s, to establish astronomical latitude and longitude of geodetic points by observing the stars.

     T4bmini.JPG (14483 octets)

TOTAL STATION

A total station incorporates an electromagnetic distance measurement device along with a theodolite with electronic readings. The first total station was introduced in 1978.

 
           

GYROTHEODOLITE

A gyrotheodolite determines the direction of true north using a high-speed rotary wheel. The forces of gravity and rotation of the Earth make the wheel rotation plane to align with the plane of the local meridian. The first gyrotheodolite was invented by H. Wild in 1922. This instrument from the Fennel company in West Germany is similar to the Wild GAK1 introduced in 1965.

 
         

TERMINUS SURVEY POST

The inventor of the Terminus survey post is Mr J.P. Dutil, one of the first graduates of our Land Surveying School. He is also Michel’s father (graduated in 1952) and François’ grandfather (graduated in 1981).

      

 

 

 

PHOTOTHEODOLITE

A phototheodolite consists of a camera placed on top of a theodolite. This allows to geolocalize directly the photograph. This device was invented by the Swiss geodesist Heinrich Wild in 1925.

         

STEREOMETRIC CAMERA WILD C40 (1965) 

A stereometric camera (chamber) can simultaneously photograph the same object (or scene) from 2 different view points. With a pair of photographs, it is possible to determine three-dimensional coordinates of visible points on the two photographs. 

         

STEREOSCOPE

A stereoscope is a device to visualize the relief of terrain from a pair of aerial photographs having a spatial overlap. The measurement of parallax (the observation of the same point from two different view points) allows to measure the altitude of points on the ground.

              

 

 

CHRONOGRAPH

A chronograph was used to measure and record, on paper tape, time intervals precise at 1/100 of a second. This FAVAG chronograph, synchronised with time signal received from a shortwave radio, was used along with a T4 theodolite.

     Chronographemini.JPG (13906 octets)

TIME SIGNALS RECEIVER (SHORTWAVE RADIO)

This type of shortwave radio (Witmer, Zürich) allowed the reception of time signals to support astronomical observations.

     Radiomini.JPG (13386 octets)

CELESTIAL SPHERE

A celestial sphere shows the sky’s stars. It provides star coordinates (right ascension and declination).

     GCeleste2mini.jpg (13798 octets)

 

 

GEODIMETER AGA MODEL 6

The GEODIMETER is a lightwave EDM invented by the Swedish physicist E. Bergstrand in 1949. The model 6 was introduced in 1964.

     AGA1mini.JPG (14476 octets)     AGA2mini.JPG (12369 octets)

TELLUROMETER MRA-2

The Tellurometer is a radiowave EDM invented by the South-African physicist T.L. Wadley in 1956. This type of EDM was used until the 1970s. Employed in pairs, the radiowaves were also used as a communication link between the 2 operators.

     MRAamini.JPG (12320 octets)     MRAbmini.JPG (9362 octets)

AUTORANGER-A K&E

This type of Infra-red EDM was built by the American company Keuffel & Esser. It was used for topographic surveys during the 1970s.

     Range1mini.JPG (14072 octets)      Range2mini.JPG (13613 octets)

 

 

DOPPLER RECEIVER

This JMR-1 Doppler receiver allowed the establishment of geodetic networks using Doppler frequency observations from Transit satellites. Doppler receivers were widely used to densify geodetic networks in Northern Quebec and Canada during the 1970s.

     JMRamini.JPG (9618 octets)

GEODETIC GPS RECEIVER

First of the 2 geodetic GPS receivers purchased by the Department in 1990 ($ 110,000 for the pair). Ashtech LD-XII receiver (12 L1 & L2 channels).

        

GPS-GIS RECEIVER

First handheld GPS unit with GIS and mapping features. Magellan NAV1000 1988. Donation of the Department of Forest Sciences, U. Laval.

     

 

 

SEXTANT (Norie & Wilson, London)

A sextant, mainly used on ships, allowed the measurement of (vertical and horizontal) angles. These measurements were then used to determine the ship’s coordinates at sea.

     Sextant1mini.JPG (15537 octets)  

MARINE CHRONOMETER (Ulysse Nardin, Le Locle, Suisse)

A marine chronometer allowed the precise determination of longitudes aboard rolling ships at sea. The longitude determination was only as precise as the time keeping precision of the marine chronometer.  

    ChronoMarinemini.JPG (12813 octets)

SOUNDING LEAD

A sounding lead was used to measure the water depth in shallow water manually.

Donation of the Canadian Hydrographic Service (Région du Québec).

     Plombsondemini.JPG (5514 octets)

TIDE GAUGE (A. Ott, Kempten, Germany)

A (mechanical) tide gauge allowed the measurements of the variation of water levels. A floater installed in a stilling well goes up and down with the tide while a pen traces on a rotating paper roll the water level variation.

Donation of the Canadian Hydrographic Service (Région du Québec).

    

     Marégraphemini.JPG (12571 octets)

ECHO SOUNDER (Raytheon, Survey Fathometer)

An echo sounder allowed the measurement of water depth using acoustic waves.

Donation of the Canadian Hydrographic Service (Région du Québec).

     Echomini.JPG (14930 octets)

 

 

MECHANICAL CALCULATOR (Original Odhner, Goteborg, Sweden)

This mechanical calculator was built in the 1930s. It allowed the addition, subtraction, multiplication and division of numbers.

On loan from Mrs Annick Jaton.

    

      MCalculsmini.JPG (12572 octets)

CURTA CALCULATOR

This Curta calculator was built in Liechtenstein during the 1960s. It allowed the multiplication and division of numbers. It has been replaced by electronic calculators such as the HP-25 (photo).

On loan from the Service de la Géodésie du Québec.

   

      Curta&HPmini.JPG (10349 octets)

 

 

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